ZX-55113-96 | Estriol ELISA kit
Estriol (C18H24O3), also known as E3 or oestriol, is a C-18 steroid hormone involved in female sexual development and function. It is one of the three endogenous Estrogens in woman, the two others are Estradiol and Estrone. Being important for the health of the mother and baby, Estriol constitutes 60-70% of the total Estrogens during pregnancy. It is mainly produced by placenta in pregnant women, increasing to 300-500-fold higher than in non-pregnant women. Approximately 90% of the precursors for the formation of Estriol are of fetal origin; the late term human fetus produces relatively large amounts of 16α-hydroxy DHEA, which serves the mother as a precursor of Estriol. In case of abnormal maternal serum screening results, specifically low levels of unconjugated Estriol in the second trimester, a diagnosis of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) may be suspected. SLOS is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations of the gene encoding 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase.
Regarding the biochemistry of Estriol, it is a hydroxylated metabolite of 17β-Estradiol or Estrone with a hydroxyl group at the C3, 16α, and 17β positions. As a metabolite of Estrone, it is metabolized via 16α-hydroxyestrone through the enzyme 16α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase or to 2- or 4-hydroxyestrone by the action of catecho-O-methyltransferase. The latter metabolites can be formed in the brain and may compete with receptors for catecholamines. Estriol is also a major urinary Estrogen whose metabolites are conjugated with sulfate or glucuronide prior to excretion by the kidney.
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